Controversy continues as to what these 2 goats of the Day of atonement represents.
What is undeniable is that these 2 goats are for the atonement of sins. But, whose sins? From the narrative in Leviticus 16, the goat for YHVH (Lord) was killed and the goat to Azazel was presented alive to YHVH (Lord). The 1st goat was for the atonement of sins of mankind. Could the atonement of the 2nd goat be for sins of the “fallen angels”?
Notice that in v-15, the killed goat was a sin offering for the sins of Israel and by extension includes that of Gentiles. On the other hand, in v-10, the other goat was presented alive and was sent into the wilderness to Azazel. But why should Aaron after atonement of sins of Israel through the death of the first goat in v-16, again, in v-21, “lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins..”?
Looking back at creation, angels and humans were created by YHVH, the Word-Creator. Adam, representing humans, sinned and death came to all mankind. Similarly, Lucifer sinned and in fact took away with him a third of angelic beings. To be a substitute for humans, the second Adam (Jesus) has to be human as well.
YYHVH has to incarnate as man-Jesus to die for mankind. The parallel here, is shared by many, that the 1st goat that was killed represented the atoning sacrificial death of Jesus to reconcile mankind to God. But, how about the sins of angelic beings? Notice in V-10 “…but the goat on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented alive before the Lord to make atonement over it, that it may be sent away into the wilderness to Azazel”. The purpose of the live-goat was also for atoning the sins of “fallen angels” and to reconcile them to God.
As a goat that was killed, so was the man Jesus killed. But as a resurrected Jesus, “he went and preached unto the spirits(fallen angels) in prison” (I Pet. 3:19). These fallen angels are in “… chains of darkness,..”(2 Pet 2:4), “… everlasting chains…”(Jude 1:6).
The live-goat (resurrected Jesus) with sins of mankind “upon the head of the goat” as proof, told these “fallen angels” about his atoning sacrifice for man. As Jesus reconciled mankind to God with his death, having been resurrected and alive he can also atone and reconcile the “fallen angels” as he will be sitting in “the right hand of God”.
As YHVH, and the Word-Creator being the incarnate Jesus, these 2 goats foreshadow what Jesus will do in the future. He has provided a mechanism for atonement of all sins to reconcile all to God