Humans were created “matter-composed”(from dust, earthy), not “spirit-composed”. As matter, man is mortal and can die, unlike “spirit-body” that is immortal. We were created as an “image” (Gen. 1:27) of the immortal God, although “matter-composed” we will be “like him” (I John 3:2), in the future, spirit-body and immortal. The “image” is “earthy”, meaning from dust or earth and unlike man-Jesus “from above” (I Cor. 15:46-48), who came from heaven and not formed on earth nor of ” dust of the ground”. But, at resurrection Paul states that we will change into immortality (I Cor. 15:51-57), “spirit-composed body”, like Jesus’ body post resurrection.
Sin did not need to be committed for us to die. Genesis 2:17 does not refer to 1st death that is “physical” and has resurrection, but to “eternal death”, wherein there is no more resurrection. All humans will die as man-Jesus died but resurrected “spirit-bodily”. Anyone who got resurrected to physical body (as Lazarus and others” John 11:14; Lu.7:15; 8:51-56;Acts 9:40-41;20:9-12) and died again, will again experience resurrection, whether to life or judgment. There is a first and second (or 3rd) resurrection as there is first and eternal death. See Rev. 20:4-6, v-14).
Meanwhile, the Spirit of God (Jn 16:7-8) that was promised by the Father after Jesus’ death and resurrection, will “in-dwell” to humans as it did to the apostles and others at Pentecost for the purpose of (v-6) “will reprove (elencho/rebuke) the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment”. The spirit will also help us discern spiritual things (I Cor.2:14-16 ), as eyeglasses help poor vision and hearing aids for poor hearing ( Matt. 13:9-17; Mk. 4:9; Rev. 3:22), “empower” us “to heal the sick, raise the dead, etc.” and express the “fruits of the Spirit”( Gal. 5:22-23).
This is the “spirit” guiding us to follow the Law, “written” by this Spirit (2 Cor. 3:3) in the “fleshly tables of our heart(mind)”, not in “tables of stone” and as promised, the “new covenant” (Heb. 8:7-13). This Spirit is giving us the “mind of Christ” ( Phil. 2:5-11), so we will be “one” with him as he is “one” with the Father ( John 17:21).